When there’s a need for medical billing and coding for a hospital facility or private practice, one of the most challenging situations can be understanding medical billing terminology which relates to every specific part of the treatment process. One of them can be understanding downcoding medical definitions.
Overview of Downcoding Medical
In the medical billing process, downcoding is the practice of submitting a diagnosis code that describes a less severe condition than what was actually treated. For example, if a patient is diagnosed with asthma and is treated for it, the coder may submit a code for a less severe condition, such as bronchitis, to get the claim paid.
There are a number of reasons why downcoding happens, but the most common one is that the insurance company may not cover the cost of the treatment for the more severe condition. In some cases, the insurance company may require pre-authorization for the more severe condition, which can take time.
Downcoding can also happen if the doctor does not document the condition correctly. For example, if a patient comes in with shortness of breath and the doctor documents it as “wheezing,” the coder may submit a code for asthma, even though the patient may have had a less severe condition, such as bronchitis.
Downcoding Medical Definitions
The downcoding medical definition is when a provider codes a diagnosis or procedure at a lower level than what was actually performed. For example, a provider may document that a patient has three lesions, but only code for two. Downcoding generally leads to lower reimbursement because the provider is billing for a lower level of service than they actually provided.
While downcoding can be intentional, it can also be accidental. In some cases, providers may not be aware that they are downcoding or may not be familiar with the correct codes. In other cases, the documentation may not be clear enough to support a higher-level code.
Downcoding can have serious financial implications for both providers and patients. Providers may receive lower reimbursement, and patients may be responsible for a greater portion of the bill. In some cases, downcoding can even result in fraud investigations.
To avoid downcoding, it is important for providers to understand the coding process and to code accurately based on the documentation.
How Downcoding in Medical Billing Works?
Downcoding can be difficult to detect, as it often involves using codes that are similar to the ones for the actual services provided. In order to prevent downcoding and ensure that providers are paid accurately for the services they provide, payers (such as insurance companies) often use auditing and review processes to check the accuracy of the codes submitted on claims.
Medical coders use different assigned codes for billing and claiming for the provided services called Current Procedural Codes, normally termed CPT codes. These codes translate the specificity of a disease for which treatment and services are provided by the medical provider. As discussed, when a code is documented to specify a lower level of intensity of disease than its original cost, it will be referred to as downcoding. On the flip side, the opposite scenario of the same process where a less intensive disease is documented with a code of higher complexity would be called upcoding. Upcoding is a serious threat to practice and can bring fraudulent penalties for a buyer.
The truth that providers have to face is that they never get a legal notice for downcoding, but they just receive a much lower reimbursement from the insurance provider. In some instances, the EOB form (Explanation of benefits form) requires certain explanations which include “level of service (or procedure) has been adjusted”.
Generally, when it comes to identifying downcoding, the only thing to detect is getting familiar with the coding and fee schedule as a payer when you receive an EOB form.
The Implications of Downcoding
As healthcare reimbursement rates continue to decline, many providers are finding that they are being forced to downcode their diagnosis and procedure codes in order to receive fair compensation from insurance companies. While this may seem like a good way to keep your practice afloat, there are a number of drawbacks to this strategy that you should be aware of.
For one, downcoding can jeopardize the quality of care you are able to provide to your patients. When you are forced to cut corners in order to make ends meet, it can have a negative impact on the level of care you are able to provide. Additionally, downcoding can also lead to fraud and abuse allegations, as it can be difficult to document why you are providing a lower level of care than what was billed for.
Addressing the situation of increasing claim denials and payer downcoding, in December 2020, The American Hospital Association – AHA released a white paper titled, Addressing Commercial Health Plan Abuses to Ensure Fair Coverage for Patients and Providers. The report stated the statistics that over the past three years there were 89% of hospitals surveyed experienced an intense increase in claim denials, where 51% of them reported a significant increase.
According to the report, medical providers have specific concerns related to denial rates and downcoding such as: “Not only are private health insurance plans the dominant source of healthcare coverage for most Americans, but employers, as well as the Medicare and Medicaid programs, rely on private health plans to provide or administer their health benefits… Coverage through these plans is eroding as some health insurers restrict access to health care services by abusing utilization management programs…”
In addition, the coders from the professional American Academy check the clinical validation of downgrading resulting as an emerging issue and have addressed the same in their recent article by Dorothy Steed ‘Take Steps to Reduce Payer DRG Denials’. The article discusses:
“Payers have been increasingly scrutinizing codes that raise the DRG and accompanying payment to determine whether the stated condition is supported by evidence. Claims that are high risk for scrutiny and denial often contain one diagnosis code that is a complication or comorbidity, serving to raise the DRG and reimbursement.”
Addressing Payer Downcoding Practices
To maintain the revenue cycle, even at a slower pace, hospitals and healthcare systems take downcoding as an imperative strategy. As downcoding has a greater risk for providers, they need to prevent themselves from penalty strike from payers and claim denials.
According to experts, to counter payer downcoding practices and prevent claim rejections, healthcare providers can take the following steps:
- Keep detailed and accurate records of the services provided, including notes on the patient’s condition and the specific procedures performed. This will provide evidence of the services actually provided in the event of a dispute.
- Educate staff on the importance of accurate billing and the consequences of downcoding. Make sure everyone understands the policies and procedures for billing and coding accurately.
- Review the codes submitted on claims to ensure they accurately reflect the services provided. This can be done through regular audits or by using software tools that check for errors and inconsistencies.
- Work closely with payers to understand their policies and requirements for billing and coding. This will help ensure that claims are submitted correctly and can help prevent disputes or denials of payment.
- Stay up-to-date on changes to coding and billing rules and regulations. This can help prevent errors and ensure that claims are submitted correctly.
Overall, the key to countering payer downcoding practices is to be proactive and ensure that all billing and coding is accurate and compliant with applicable laws and regulations.